Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

PC Fraud and Abuse Act - Essay Example This alludes to the inclusion of the administrative government’s PCs or endorsed money related bodies in examples where the carried out wrongdoing is of an interstate nature. To explain the arrangements of the first Act further, dealing in passwords, rebuking administration assaults and pernicious dissemination of codes was additionally condemned by the CFAA. The Act likewise experienced a few changes in an offer to wipe out covers and fill escape clauses somewhere in the range of 1989 and 2008. With models, this paper will scrutinize the authentic impact of the CFAA: Has it been a triumph or disappointment in forestalling PC misrepresentation and misuse? This inquiry is driven by the ambiguity of the law, which has the capability of presenting it to defects and prosecutorial misuse. According to its, the Act can be seen from two edges as far as the PCs it covers (Granville, 2003). The secured PCs are alluded to as ensured PCs, and in this sense, hypothetically, an ensured PC is characterized as one implied for selective use by the administration of the United States or by a monetary organization. It likewise alludes to whatever other PC which utilizes the legislature or money related foundation is harmfully influenced by direct that establishes an offense. This incorporates PCs not inside the United States, which influence remote or interstate correspondence and business of the United States. ... Since Congress didn't depict plainly what was implied by that, it brings up issues with regards to whether examiners will be of the feeling that a violator of terms of administration of a site merits time in prison or not (Jarrett and Bailie, 2010). Would such a supposition be sensible or too much cruel? Further, does the law need to isolate the manner in which it treats criminal aims on the Internet that bring about grave damage to the security of social, city, and monetary organizations based on what is viewed as ordinary Internet action? In the light of the current scramble for the Internet, legislators need to evaluate the adequacy of the CFAA and choose how to react to different partners and invested individuals. For example, some remote nations are looking for command over the Internet; influential people and corporate associations need it formed in manners helpful to them while subverting national interests; military systems are spying, assaulting and mistreating both private and open foundations; and insight and law upholding offices are trying to screen and mine it (Jarrett and Bailie, 2010). An examination of these zones will empower officials to decide the achievement or disappointment of the CFAA up until now, and whether changes are required. In the across the board case of the Aaron law, it is available to contention whether Aaron Swartz perpetrated a felony by downloading content from JSTOR, a notable chronicle for scholastic records, on which he had a record. After JSTOR overseers got mindful of the downloads in 2011, they blocked them and didn't seek after criminal charges.â

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Panasync Essay Example For Students

Panasync Essay Vinny Testaverde ne Vincent Frank Testaverde, etais ne le 13 Novembre 1963. Il est mainteant 65 et il pese 235 lbs et jou qaurt arriere frown les Jets de New York. Il etais ne au Elmont et compete ici maintent. Quand Vinny etais enfants il voulais joue au football mais carson pere etais un pilote ils devis demanager beacoup. Vinny alais au Fork Union Military Academy sulk quel ques anne. Apres ce la il et alle au Miami. En Miami Vinny a gange le Heisman Trophy, All American Selection, et Davey Obrian Award et a terminer lecole avec le in addition to de pass dans lishtoire de lecole avec 6, 058 borderlines. Dans child dernier anne il a Commance evec un record de 11 triumphs et 0 defets. En 1987 il etais chois Premierment dans la draft standard Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Dans so chief anne dans le LNF il an eu le record pour le in addition to de borderlines dans un juex avec 369, ce record stais in addition to tard batu standard Dru Bledso. En 1987 Vinny an aussi gange All Rookie Selection. En 1988 Il a terminer lanne avec 4,079 borderlines absolute. IlA de nouveau gage le record pour le in addition to de borderlines dans un jeux avec 469 et Jusqo date ce reste child record personnele. En 1990 Vinny avais le in addition to de Verges moyen standard pass avevc 9.8 borderlines. Il an aussi eu un Touche en courant48 borderlines, ce la et encors un record pour lequipe. En 1991 Il ce blesseDeux fois le debut au aorty el le deuxieme au doit. Words/Pages : 262/24

Friday, August 21, 2020

Sanders, Bernie

Sanders, Bernie Sanders, Bernie (Bernard Sanders), 1941â€", American politician, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. The son of Jewish immigrants from Poland, he spent a year at Brooklyn College and graduated from the Univ. of Chicago (B.A., 1964). He moved to Vermont in 1964. A sometime journalist, carpenter, writer, and filmmaker, he taught at Harvard (1989) and Hamilton College (1989â€"90). Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate in the early 1970s and for Vermont governor in 1972, 1976, and 1986. First elected mayor of Burlington in 1980, he proved to be popular and effective. In 1990 he was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, becoming the first socialist to serve in that body since the 1920s. Officially considered an independent, Sanders was elected (2006, 2012) to the Senate, where he has generally espoused liberal and progressive positions while assiduously avoiding the label of Democrat. In 2015, however, he became a candidate for the 2016 Democr atic presidential nomination, mounting a long, vigorous, but ultimately losing campaign against Hillary Clinton . See his Outsider in the House (1997); studies by G. Guma (1989), W. J. Conroy (1990), S. Soifer (1991), and S. Rosenfeld (1992). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. History: Biographies

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay on Believing in Gods Existence - 2053 Words

Believing in Gods Existence Theism is a reasonable idea. Theologians have traditionally used several philosophical proofs in arguing for the existence of God. In my paper I will briefly discuss different arguments that have been used to prove Gods existence. These are as follows: Cosmological; Teleological; Ontological; Religious Experience and Evil. These arguments are not always persuasive, but that probably says as much about us as it does about the arguments. People most often reject God for reasons other than logic. These arguments, however, do provide insights that, while not proving the existence of God, do provide insights that may be used to show evidence of His existence. How†¦show more content†¦This is proof of the existence of a perfect and consistent God. When you see a tree with its branches waving in the wind do you believe there is a wind out there blowing the branches of the tree? You cannot see the wind, but you can see what it does, and so you know it is there. We can use the same example with air. We know that there is air all around us. Through science we know we cannot survive without it. We cannot see it, but we breathe it in and let it out of our lungs, and it keeps us alive. We know it is there because we know what it does. The first argument I will talk about will be the Cosmological argument. It attempts to prove God exists through features of the universe, such as causes and effects. Thomas Aquinas is one of the most famous philosophers to argue for the existence of God in this way. In fact, he has five arguments but I will only discuss two of them. In the first he notes that everything in the world has a cause. Nothing has ever caused itself. We can look back at events through history and determine exactly how they came about. But Aquinas says this process cant simply have been going on forever. We do not live in an infinite world. Therefore there must have been a first cause, something infinite that did not need to be caused itself, but that has setShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Of God s Existence1671 Words   |  7 PagesWe are told to follow certain norms or otherwise the big guy upstairs will punish us for being â€Å"disobedient†. To many, â€Å"believing in God† is the only way t o live, the reason for the way everything is, and it’s the meaning to life. To others, God, is just a popular view whose existence cannot be proven. While both Atheist and Agnostics agree on the questioning of God’s existence, they disagree on the reasoning of why thing are the way they are. Agnostics believe in a higher power while Atheists believeRead MoreSummary Of Blaise Pascal s The Wager 1286 Words   |  6 Pagesbeneficial to believe in God’s existence. It is important to note that in Pascal’s Wager, Pascal is not using reason to determine if God exists, just if it is more beneficial to believe in God’s existence. The way Pascal views it, there are two options for God’s existence; either God exists, or God does not exist. Pascal views each possibility as equally likely to be true. With this in mind, a person has a choice between believing in God’s existence or not believing in God’s existence. Consequently, thereRead M oreEssay on Pascal’s Wager984 Words   |  4 Pagesshow Pascal’s reasoning to be untenable. Pascal’s Wager is an argument that tries to convince non-theists why they should believe in the existence of the Christian god. Pascal thinks non-theists should believe in God’s existence because if a non-theist is wrong about the existence of God they have much more to lose than if a theist is wrong about the existence of God. Pascal begins his argument by stating that everyone must make a wager. This wager everyone places is on whether or not God existsRead MoreDiscourse on Descartes Skeptical Method1672 Words   |  7 PagesSebastian Gumina Paper Topic #1 Descartes’ Skeptical Method Descartes’ method offers definitive conclusions on certain topics, (his existence, the existence of God)but his reasoning is not without error. He uses three arguments to prove existence (His and God’s) that attempt to solidify his conclusions. For his method to function seamlessly, Descartes needs to be consistent in his use of the method, that is, he must continue to doubt and challenge thoughts that originate in his ownRead MoreKant And Anselm : Argument For God s Existence1129 Words   |  5 PagesKant and Anselm: The Argument for God’s Existence Philosophers have for long debated on the existence of a Supreme all powerful and all perfect God, Kant, and Anselm being among them. Where Anselm has supported the presence of God and all the attributes that regard to the Him, Kant has risen up with a counter argument. The interaction between the two, the philosophical objection raised by Kant, and what this means to the rest of mankind will be analyzed in this paper. To begin with, Anselm introducesRead MoreKant And Anselm : Argument For God s Existence1142 Words   |  5 PagesYourFirstName YourLastName†¨Instructor s Name†¨Course Title†¨21 November 2016 Any Topic (Writer s Choice) Kant and Anselm: The Argument for God’s Existence Philosophers have for long debated on the existence of a Supreme all powerful and all perfect God, Kant, and Anselm being among them. Where Anselm has supported the presence of God and all the attributes that regard to the Him, Kant has risen up with a counter argument. The interaction between the two, the philosophical objection raised by KantRead MoreWhy Is Graham Hess Is The End Of The World Essay1507 Words   |  7 Pagespeople and their corresponding beliefs; some of which included the concept of God and his possible existence. Prior to this semester, I think I would have considered myself to fall under one of Graham Hess’ categories, one that I do not consider myself to be in now. This course and the curriculum managed to change my outlook; meaning that I now believe in signs and miracles, as opposed to just believing that everything could be considered a coincidence, with nothing to prove otherwise. The reasonRead MoreExplain the Strengths and Weaknesses of Aquinas Cosmological Argument1203 Words   |  5 Pagesposteriori argument based on the question of the relation of the universe’s existence and God’s existence. This argument focuses on the theory that if the universe exists then something must have caused it to existence, ie. A God or Creator. Supporters of this argument claim that to fully comprehend the existence of the universe, one must rely on a theory of a God however critics would say that due to the inability to prove God’s existence means that the universe cannot be fully explained. Many who don’t supportRead MoreJustification And Justification For The Act Of Being Set Right Or Made Right1647 Words   |  7 Pagespeople are cleansed and set apart from others to do God’s will. Some synonyms used in the â€Å"New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible† are: to be set apart, to dedicate, to purify, to make sacred, and to manifest holiness. The Dictionary states that to be sanctified is to be graciously taken up and set apart for participation in the saving or reconciling purposes of God. For Christians, this happens when they become and remain part of the community of God’s people, who are shaped by the Holy Spirit in theRead MoreNietzsche: Morality Essay1389 Words   |  6 Pagesto the existence of moral values by many philosophers including William Lane Craig. One of his excerpts argues that if there is an existence of moral values, which some people agree, then there is the existence of God. He explains, God provides the best explanation for objective moral values in the world. If God does not exist, then objective moral values do not exist. Craig says that even the most influential atheists of our time agree with this argument but then in order to avoid Gods existence

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Capital Punishment Not Cruel and Not Unusual Essay

Capital punishment and the practice of the death penalty is an issue that is passionately debated in the United States. Opponents of the death penalty claim that capital punishment is unnecessary since a life sentence accomplishes the same objective. What death penalty opponents neglect to tell you is that convicted murders and child rapists escape from prison every year(List of prison escapes, 2015). As I write this essay, police are searching for two convicted murders who escaped from the Clinton Correctional Facility in New York on June 6th, 2015. The ONLY punishment from which one cannot escape is capital punishment. As the world is changing, so are people’s views on the death penalty. Some think that it does not†¦show more content†¦Throughout time, people were executed for various crimes such as: not confessing to a crime, stealing, cutting down a tree, marrying a Jew, killing chickens, being a spy, striking one’s mother or father, murder, and much more ( In a study I did, 50% of them thought the death penalty was cruel and unusual. Out of the 15 that thought it was cruel and unusual, 11 said that murderers and or rapists should get the death penalty. Capital Punishment has been around for so long it doesn’t need to be outlawed, just revised a little more like it has been as the years passed. Racism is often an excuse people use to say how unfair the death penalty is against African Americans. This excuse has been proven false in a few studies. More white murderers have been put to death since 1976 then black murderers, showing that the death penalty is not unjust to African Americans and minorities (Fisanick 26).In contrast, almost half of the criminals, on death row are black. Even though that is the case, blacks commit more murders than whites making it proportional ( Criminals should not be given a lighter or harsher sentence due to their race, but due to the crimes that they committed and the severity of them. A big worry that the supreme courts have to deal with is the fear of accidentally convicting and executing an innocent person. To prevent this from happening they have toShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment Is Cruel And Unusual1092 Words   |  5 Pagespeople believe that capital punishment is cruel and unusual. It is the only punishment that can truly compensate the loss of a loved one. In recent years, the rate of serious crimes has increased. The increase of crime is the result of less effective punishment. Dating back to early civilizations, capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, was viewed as an effective punishment. Yet today’s society it is viewed as cruel and inhumane. I believe that capital punishment should be executedRead MoreCapital Punishment Is A Cruel And Unusual Punishment1942 Words   |  8 PagesCapital punishment is defined as the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime. There are many arguments that are for and against the death penalty. Majority of these arguments contain broad categories ranging from morality to attorney quality. Although most would support that capital punishment is the closest penalty for murder it is still used unequally across the prison populations. Capital punishment is a practice that the judicial system should abolish for the futureRead MoreIs Capital Punishment A Cruel An d Unusual Fate?1853 Words   |  8 PagesIs capital punishment a cruel and unusual fate or is it a necessary form of justice? Capital punishment is also referred to as the death penalty. The death penalty is a form of action taken by the court of law where a guilty conviction means you pay with your life. Being an American citizen, I believe that we live in the freest country on earth and have a right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. However, in our pledge of allegiance it states that we also have justice for all. SoRead More Capital Punishment is Cruel And Unusual Essay1162 Words   |  5 Pagesexecution such as this one have taken place as a punishment for crime. In 1976, the United States reinstated the death penalty after having revoked it in 1972. Since its reinstatement, the morality of such punishment has been widely debated. I believe that the death penalty cannot be morally justified on the basic ground that, killing human beings, as a form of punishmen t, is wrong. I acknowledge that a major argument supporting capital punishment is that it serves as a deterrent to crimes, specificallyRead More Capital Punishment Is Not Only Unusual, But Cruel Essay989 Words   |  4 Pages Capital Punishment is Not Only Unusual, But Cruel nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The most widely known aspect of the eighth amendment is the fact that it prohibits cruel and unusual punishment. Cruel and unusual punishment is perceived as punishment that causes â€Å"an unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain† (Bailey). Is capital punishment cruel and unusual? It is one of the most controversial topics in America today. In effect since the 1600s, the US Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty wasRead More Capital Punishment Essay - Death Penalty is Neither Cruel Nor Unusual1166 Words   |  5 PagesDeath Penalty is Neither Cruel Nor Unusual A man sits immobile in a steel chair with a metal cap resting on his bald head. A priest reads selections from the Bible telling him he will go to Heaven if he confesses his sins to God. The man just smiles as the security guard pulls the switch, and one thousand volts of electricity flows through the mans body. His entire frame shakes in convulsions as his head bobs up and down with the shock. In a couple of seconds the mans life is over. The priestRead More Capital Punishment Essay - Justice in Retribution1470 Words   |  6 PagesCapital Punishment: Justice in Retribution       The American government operates in the fashion of an indirect democracy. Citizens live under a social contract whereby individuals agree to forfeit certain rights for the good of the whole. Punishments for crimes against the state are carried out via due process, guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. The use of capital punishment is decided by the state, which is legal in thirty-seven states. It is a moral imperative to protect the states rightsRead MoreThe Argument Of Cruel And Unusual Punishment1293 Words   |  6 Pagesnor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.† Specifically, the idea of cruel and unusual punishment has been a topic of dispute since its inception. Although the United States practiced execution as a punishment beforehand, â€Å"the Supreme Court did not address the death penalty issue until 1972.† It is often debated how we are to define cruel and unusual because of the vague nature of the terms. Because it is thought that the terms were k ept vague in order to keep up with new forms of cruel andRead MoreThe Death Penalty in America Essay996 Words   |  4 Pagespenalty is the most severe sentence that can be administered to a criminal (Capital Punishment 1). There are only fourteen states in the United States that prohibit capital punishment, Iowa being among them (Death Penalty 1).   Ã‚  Ã‚   In the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, it is stated that cruel and unusual punishment is prohibited. In opposers minds, capital punishment is classified as cruel and unusual. There are many methods of execution used by the various states. TheseRead MoreCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty932 Words   |  4 PagesBinch Ms. Stevens English 9 Honors 6th May 2016 Capital Punishment Tom Robinson is a Black, unfairly tried, innocent character being tried for Capital Punishment for falsely accused of raping a white girl in the book â€Å"To Kill A Mockingbird.† (Lee, Harper.). This is clearly wrong. Governments should not concern itself with taking people s lives. Capital punishment is a legally authorised killing for a crime. In the modern United States capital punishment is only used for punishing murder. The 1930’s

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Commentary On 13 Reasons Why - 1351 Words

Social Commentary on 13 Reasons Why In 2007, Jay Asher released the young adult novel 13 Reasons Why. It steadily gained popularity; it made the New York Times Bestseller List in 2011. In early 2017, Netflix took off with it and produced a 13-episode series. The story follows the suicide note (or rather, audio cassette tapes) left behind by high schooler Hannah Baker after she killed herself. Respected social figures and celebrities quoted the show and opened discussion about topics like depression, rape culture, bullying, and most obviously, suicide. On the thirteen tapes, Hannah walks the audience through the events and actions that led to her taking her own life, with each tape specifically about one of the thirteen people that she†¦show more content†¦But her relationship with them doesn’t seem to be one of mutual trust and communication. She explained that when their career lives got difficult and busy, her relationship with them dwindled. She said they talked to her, but not like before. They let their work take precedence over investing in their daughter, and beneath their disinterest and oblivion, she fell apart. She already accepted that they aren’t her best option to address her problems; her mom didn’t even notice her haircut, never mind her emotional deterioration. 13 Reasons Why exhibits uninvolved parenting and the way it can impact, or rather, not impact, teens’ lives. Additionally, Hannah only utilized the authorities in the school (to whom youth facing issues like hers are encouraged to come to) as a last resort, after she had already decided to take her own life. As previously mentioned, she went to talk to Mr. Porter, her guidance counselor at school, in search of one last glimmer of hope. She discussed with him the sexual assault she suffered, among other hardships, and her desire to end her life. His response painfully disappointed her. He essentially told her that getting over it may be her best option, and she left agitated. She hoped he would follow and not let her go, realizing she was serious about suicide, but he didn’t. Along the same lines asShow MoreRelatedJane Austen s Mood : Pride And Prejudice 1686 Words   |  7 Pagesend. Jane: Elizabeth’s sister. Good conscience. Main thing Elizabeth cares about. Bingley: Starts everything that happens, since he brings Darcy into the picture and makes Jane fall for him. Issues: Social standards, marriage and love, and misconceptions Misconceptions (support and page #) Commentary Pg. 215 â€Å"He came to tell Mr. Gardiner that he had found out where your sister and Mr. Wickham were, and that he had seen and talked with them both; Wickham repeatedly, Lydia once. From what I can collectRead MoreThe Garden Of Earthly Delights By Hieronymus Bosch1210 Words   |  5 Pagescreated by the Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosch (who was known for his tenancy to create fantasy like figure painting of demons, machines and sometimes grotesque/frightening imagery). This oil painting is composed of three panels (triptych), measuring 13 feet by 7 feet when all the panels are open. When opening up Bosch’s triptych, the first panel reveals a colorful interior filled  with strange building, abnormal landforms, and many different types of crossbreed (alien like) creatures. In the frontRead More139840 Level 2 Unit Hsc 025 The Role Of The Health And Social Care Worker Exemplar Candidate Work4599 Words   |  18 PagesCARE HEALTH AND SOC TH AND SOCIAL CARE H SOCIAL CARE HEALTH A CARE HEALTH AND SOC AND SOCIAL CARE HEA RE QUALIFICATIONS HE ALTH AND SOCIAL CARE EXEMPLAR SOCIAL CARE HEALTH A CANDIDATE WORK CARE HEALTH AND SOC TH AND SOCIAL CARE H UNIT HSC 025 the role of the health and social care worker Unit HSC 025 2 Unit HSC 025 CONTENTS Introduction Page 4 Unit Purpose Page 5 Evidence for Learning Outcome 1 AC 1.1 Commentary for Evidence for AC 1.1 Read MoreDavid Slavitts Titanic analysis Essay616 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿A Look into David R. Slavitt’s â€Å"Titanic† The sinking of the Titanic was a tragedy that had an impact for the entire world. To this day, everyone is familiar with the event. It’s no wonder why mention of the ship would incite a certain dread in the hearts of those who lay their eyes on it. The title, â€Å"Titanic† (391), however, is a mere decoy. It’s a tool used to set up the ironic tone of the poem. This is made clear through the rather blunt first line, â€Å"Who does not love the Titanic?† The wordRead MoreAnalysis Of Mark Twain s The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn 1701 Words   |  7 Pagescruelty, it is misleading in that it seems as if it is meant to be interpreted, which is one reason why it is constantly critiqued. Another reason it is hotly debated is due to its contextual inconsistency and the potential underlying meanings of those anomalies. The multiple possibilities it opens up to the reader can be interpreted in a variety ways and has been by many literary critics. By using the commentary made on the â€Å"evasion† by literary critics, and through examples drawn from the novel itselfRead MoreChronicle Of A Death Foretold By Gabriel Garcia Marquez1229 Words   |  5 Pagesthe â€Å"voice† of the person presenting the story is shown through the narration. This is an aspect that â€Å"appears to conform to the journalistic style of narration that is commonly characterized as the ‘what, who, when, where whom, how and why’ technique†(Aghaei 13). This allows factual details to be introduced within the novel so that the reader is able to feel connected as if they are a part of the story. The novel’s â€Å"precise detailing of the time of each event and the matter-of-fact usage of language†Read MorePedophilia and Deviant Behavior1695 Words   |  7 Pagesmental disorder, while others refer to it as a personality or behavioral disorder characterized by the urge to have sexual relations with those of a non-consentin g age. Initially this paper will examine why exactly this is a deviant behavior. We will then go on to analyze their structural organization. Why people would want membership in such a group will then be scrutinized. An in-depth examination of what causative factors exist that contribute to this form of deviance will then ensue. We will concludeRead MoreEssay about The Positive Effects of Tumblr on Teen Culture1306 Words   |  6 PagesCulture Teenagers use social media for many different reasons. They use it to feel deemed worthy by their peers, to post personal opinions, and to share their daily life. They spend more time with their phones, laptops, iPads, etc. than they do with their family, friends, boyfriends and girlfriends. Tumblr is a popular blogging website/app that has gained popularity in the last few years. Tumblr has a positive effect on teen culture because unlike Facebook and other forms of social media, it promotesRead MoreAbortion and the Symbolic Interaction Paradigm1473 Words   |  6 Pagesmost prominent versions of the perspective (McClelland, 2000). Mooney, Knox, and Schacht explained Blumer’s theory of the symbolic interactionism perspective. According to Blumer, social problems develop in stages. The first stage is â€Å"social recognition†, when the social problem first happened. The second stage is â€Å"social legitimization†, when the problem is recognized by the community . When the community gets concerned and starts to develop a way to react is called the â€Å"mobilization for action†. â€Å"DevelopmentRead MoreUsing Social Media Sites ( Sms )1269 Words   |  6 PagesManagers looking at social media; some think it’s bad, but many think it’s great, and for good reason too. An article was once published in a Nursing Journal that described a nurse getting fired for posting the nurses feelings on Facebook. The post was about a dispute with a coworker over a patient’s care. The author who posted the article understood the high expectations expected of nurses, but felt the punishment was unfair because what the nurse did was not illegal and it was posted while the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

An Overview of the File Transfer Protocol

Questions: 1.The address depletion of IPv4 and other shortcomings of this protocol prompted a new version of IP known as IPv6. Explain the advantages of this new IPv6 when compared to IPv4? 2. Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 is known as the transition from version 4 to version 6 and requires formal strategies to handle this transition. Explain each of the strategies for this migration process using appropriate examples? 3.Calculate the approximate bit rate and signal level(s) for a 4.2 MHz bandwidth system with a signal to noise ratio of 170?) 4.In a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, Internet users that are ready to share their resources become peers and form a network. Describe the differences between centralised and decentralised P2P networks? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both networks? 5.What is the total delay (latency) for a frame of size 5 million bits that is being sent on a link with 12 routers each having a queuing time of 4 s and a processing time of 2 s. The length of the link is 2600 km, the speed of light inside the link is 2.2 x 108m/s, the link has a bandwidth of 6 Mbps. Which component(s) of the total delay is/are dominant? Which one(s) is/are negligible? 6.Briefly explain the working of FTP with a flow diagram. How does it differ from SCP? What are the security considerations in FTP? Answers: 1. IPv6 gives efficient Routing then IPv4: IPv6 lower the measure of directing tables and get to makes routing more productive and various levelled. In IPv6 networks, discontinuity is taken care of by the source device, as opposed to the router, utilizing a protocol for revelation of the path's maximum transmission unit (MTU). IPv6 is Efficient than IPv4 Packet Processing The IPv6s packet headers much efficient in handling of package than IPv4.It does not contain any IP-level checksum as IPv4. So the checksum is not calculated at each hopping of the router. As most link layer contain checksum and error capabilities, the IP level in IPv6 get rid if it. Most transport layer also have checksum that start the error detection. The Data Flows rate of IPv6 is direct IPv6 supports multicast instead of communicate. Multicast grants data transfer capacity escalated parcel streams (like media streams) to be sent to various goal in the meantime, saving framework transmission transfer speed. The IPv6 header has another new field, named Flow Label, that can perceive parcels having a place with a comparative stream. IPv6 network config is simpler Address auto-design is characteristic to IPv6. A switch will send the prefix of the neighbourhood interface in its switch advertisements. A host can make its own particular IP address by tending to its connection layer (MAC) address, changed over into Extended Universal Identifier (EUI) 64-bit arrangement, to the 64 bits of the connection prefix. Security IPSec, gives privacy, verification and data integrity, that is prepared in IPv6. In view of their capability the convey of error, IPv4 ICMP bundles are frequently blocked by corporate firewalls, yet in ICMPv6, the usage of the ICM(Internet Control Message) Protocol for IPv6, may allow on the grounds that IPSec can be applied to the ICMPv6 packets. 2. There are mainly three strategies followed to migrate from IPV4 to IPV6.: Dual Stack Approach: As we realize that the data link layer closet room to Internet layer, on which IP protocol goes on. These link layers give access to the services to higher and lower layers. Along these lines, coordination between different layer are mandatory. Along these lines, migration should not influence the transport layer and upper higher layers. Along these lines, in this way one block is taken for IPV4 and another block is taken for IPV6. These block support coordination between each other after relocation. Transition of IPV6 and IPV4: IPV6 incorporates the support of interpretation of packet heads from IPV4 - IPV6. Those are completed by mapping IPV4 IP address to an exceptional subset of IPV6 IP address known as IPV4 translated address. These techniques evade the overheads that are given by double stack strategy. Tunnelling: On the reach of relocation of the data for IPV6 packets, destination address is encapsulated for the IPV4 packet. The network administrator takes different methods to tunnel, for example, arranged tunnelling, automatic tunnelling. In orchestrated tunnelling encapsulating packet consist of information for the recipient address of IPV6 bundles and in programmed burrowing the last goal address is managed by using an IPV4 good address of the IPV6 bundles. 3. To calculate the approximate bit rate and signal level: Given, Band width (B) = 4.2 MHz Sound to Noise ratio (SNR) = 170 Signal Level (C) = B log (1+SNR) 2 =4.2 * 10^6 log (1+170) =31.08 Mbps By Shannon Formulae, gives 31 Mbps For better performance, we choose 30 Mbps, then using Nyquist formulae, Bit Rate = 2*B*Log (C)2 =2*4.2*Log (30)2 =41.2 Mbps 4. Centralized P2P network, means hybrid network system. The Meta information about information and companions are secured on many "concentrated" server substances. These information sets may fuse parameters like the report availability, transfer speed, IP-addresses, inertia esteem, wt terrace. The data transmit is still dealt with in a decentralized strategy, direct from shared. In Decentralized shared p2p system, the data trade of these meta information must be administered without such especially described server framework. Like this manner, every communication handshaking is prepared in the peer that includes a data exchange for those meta data. By completing the handshaking process, every peer knows about its next peer. Centralized peer-to-peer network, way hybrid systems, and the Meta data of data/ information and the peers are placed on every centralized values of server. These information may issued parameters like the report accessibility, bandwidth, IP-addresses, inactiveness value, and so forth. In Decentralized peer-to-peer network, the statistics trade of those meta facts ought to be overseen without such very lots characterised server system. In like manner, every conversation handshake put together among the peer consists of a information alternate these meta data. by way of finishing the handshake system, every peer knows about its "neighbourhood". Advantages of centralized and decentralized peer to peer network are: Easy to set-up and keep up, Inexpensive and bring down cost, No additional speculation for server-software and hardware required. It will keep on operating regardless of the possibility that one of the workstation or resources are negative. Disadvantage of centralized and decentralized peer to peer network are: Security in the peer to peer is bad other than setting passwords for records that are not needed for individuals to get access to. If the links are not connected with the PCs then there can be issues getting to specific records for data. It does not run efficiently and effectively on number of PCs; it is best to utilized 2 to 8 number of PCs for peering. 5. We know, Latency = processing time + queue time + transmiting time + propagation time = 10 x 1 = 10 (s) = 10 x 10^-6 (s) Queuing time = 10 x 2 s = 20 s = 20 x 10^-6 (s) Transmiting time = 5,000,000 / 5 (Mbps) = 1 s Propagating time = 2000 (Km) / 2 x 108 (m/s) = 0.01 s Latency = 0.000010 + 0.000020 + 1 + 0.01 = 1.010030 s The ideal opportunity for transmission is predominant here as the parcel size is colossal, and preparing time and lining time are unimportant. 6. FTP is used in TCP for controlling and data connection. TCP mainly control connection for opening and closing of any on-going FTP session and for retrieving data from client to server. Each FTP uses many different data connection. Steps for FTP process: To open the control connection The Client opens a control connection with the server (TCP). This control connection is utilized for FTP commanding and FTP answering. The Data transfer then order the client to starts a file transfer. Then Data connection is used for exchanging another information connection is made for the exchange of those records. After the end of document transfer, the sender shuts down the information that TCP is associated with, when the record is totally transferred. At last when the transfer is complete, at the end of the FTP session, the control connection is closed, the control connection then shut down by the client. The differences of FTP to SCP are: SCP stands for Secure Copy Protocol whereas FTP stands for file transfer protocol. Both of this is used for file transferring but SCP is secure encrypted while FTP is plain text. SCP uses any port that is specified, whereas FTP mainly uses port 21 that help to sends the id/password in the format of plain text. SCP duplicate records to or from any associated remote servers utilizing a SSH channel. Other than SSH get to it runs a solitary duplicate charge FTP manages the records on a remote server, however it's security is to establish the security are not so strong, and thus permits access to the FTP root directory for login client account. The security considerations in FTP:- The following security risk must be undergoing while allowing FTP clients to access the system: Your object authority scheme would not give itemized enough security when the permit of FTP is followed on the framework. USE power to a document permits the client to download the record. CHANGE authority to a record permits the client to transfer the document. FTP checks the logon endeavours for every client profile the length of the QMAXSGNACN framework esteem is set to 2 or 3. This alternative debilitates the profile on the off chance that it achieves the greatest sign on number. Three is the default setting. In any case, the hacker utilizes this to mount a "denial of service" attack by means of FTP. A hacker can utilize FTP to impair client profiles on the system by over and again endeavouring to sign on with an incorrect password. This will happen until the client profile is incapacitated. Flow Chart example for a FTP transfer Reference: Definition of PEER. (2016). Retrieved 15 December 2016, from Gleason, M. (2001). An Overview of the File Transfer Protocol. Retrieved 15 December 2016, from SearchEnterpriseWAN. Retrieved 15 December 2016, from Rouse, M. Burke, J. (2015). What is Network Address Translation (NAT)? - Definition from Transition From IPv4 to IPv6. (2016). Retrieved 15 December 2016, from Villanueva, J. (2015). SCP vs SFTP - 5 Key Comparisons. Retrieved 15 December 2016, from Hagen, S. (2014). IPv6 essentials (1st ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media. IPv4 to IPv6 Transition (1st ed.). Retrieved from